Journal Of Pharmaceutical And Allied Sciences (JOPHAS)
Prof. Emmanuel C. Ibezim
Department of Pharmaceutics
University of Nigeria, Nsukka
E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; email@example.com
ASSOCIATE/TECHNICAL EDITOR PRODUCTION EDITOR
Prof. Anthony A. Attama Pharm. P. Udeogaranya
Dr. K. C. Ofokansi
EDITORIAL BOARD MEMBERS
Prof. G. C. Onunkwo
Prof . P. O. Osadebe
Prof. C. O. Esimone
Pharm. Okey Ndu
EDITORIAL ADVISORY BOARD
Prof. M. Lopaz (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil)
Dr. S. A. Brown (Uyo, Nigeria)
Dr. A. K. Dwivedi (Lucknow, India)
Prof. M. U. Adikwu (Nsukka, Nigeria)
Prof. J. A. Onaolapo (Zaria, Nigeria
Prof. Andrei Grafov (Ukraine)
Prof. C. I. Igwilo (Lagos, Nigeria
Dr.(Mrs) M. Khanna (Lucknow, India)
Prof. C. T. Andrade (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Prof. C. N. Aguwa (Nsukka, Nigeria)
Dr. Juan Sabatier (Cuba)
Prof. L. Ezeanyika (Nsukka, Nigeria)
Prof. M. Iwuagwu (Benin, Nigeria)
Prof. P. A. Akah (Nsukka, Nigeria
Dr. Amit Misra (Lucknow, India)
Prof. A. Chukwu (Nsukka, Nigeria)
- CURRENT ADDRESS OF JOURNAL
Department of Pharmaceutics
Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences
University of Nigeria, Nsukka
- SCOPE OF JOURNAL
The Journal of Pharmaceutical and Allied Sciences (JOPHAS) is a Journal that publishes original scientific and technical research works carried out in Nigeria or abroad in the fields of Pharmacy, Microbiology, Biochemistry, Biotechnology, Pharmacology, Medical Sciences and Veterinary Medicine.
- PREVIOUS AND CURRENT ISSUES OF THE JOURNAL – TABLE OF CONTENTS WITH ABSTRACTS AND/OR FULL TEXTS
All of the editions are available in the Journal’s website except the initial first few issues. I would however present the Table of Contents/Abstracts of the very last two editions as Appendix .
- Volume 1 Number 1 (2003)
- Volume 1 Number 2 (2003)
- Volume 2 Number 1 (2004)
- Volume 2 Number 2 (2004)
- Volume 3 Number 1 (2006)
- Volume 3 Number 2 (2006)
- Volume 4 Number 1 (2007)
- Volume 4 Number 2 (2007)
- Volume 5 Number 1 (2008)
- Volume 5 Number 2 (2008)
- Volume 6 Number 1 (2009)
- Volume 6 Number 2 (2009)
- Volume 6 Number 3 (2009)
- Volume 6 Number 4 (2009)
- Volume 7 Number 1 (2010)
- Volume 7 Number 2 (2010)
- Volume 7 Number 3 (2010)
- Volume 7 Number 4 (2010)
- Volume 7 Number 5 (2010)
- Volume 8 Number 1 (2011)
- Volume 8 Number 2 (2011)
- Volume 8 Number 3 (2011)
- Volume 9 Number 1 (2012)
- Volume 9 Number 2 (2012)
- Volume 10 Number 1 (2013)
- Volume 10 Number 2 (2013)
- Volume 10 Number 3 (2013)
- Volume 11 Number 1 (2014)
- Volume 11 Number 2 (Current Edition) – 2014
- Volume 11 Number 3 (In Press)
- CURRENT WEBSITES OF THE JOURNALS
- CURRENT PUBLISHERS OF THE JOURNALS
Department of Pharmaceutics
Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences
University of Nigeria, Nsukka
- STRENGTHS AND WEAKNESSES OF THE JOURNALS
- The journal is online, easily accessible to scientists and researchers world-wide
- The Journal draws editorial input from numerous well acclaimed scientists all over the world
- The Journal has enjoyed consistent uninterrupted publication since its inception, twelve (12) years ago. In some years, the journal had exceeded her scheduled frequency of publication
- The journal draws authors from various parts of the globe
- The journal enjoys robust peer review process involving experts in the various fields covered by the journal
- The publication charges are minimal
- The Journal is sometimes incapacitated by funds to carry out some needed revolutionary changes in ICT input
- The journal is finding it difficult to gain Thompson Reuters recognition for impact factor assignment, due to the locality of its publication. For now, it only has Global Impact Factor.
- We have not been able to develop an efficient, automatic article submission and tracking system
- OPPORTUNITIES AND THREATS OF THE JOURNALS
- The journal has a wide area of patronage
- The Journal has a wide array of established editors and reviewers
- The journal is abstracted by several indexing bodies
- The journal has high online visibility
- The journal has enjoyed a track record of uninterrupted publication for 12 years
- The Journal is enlisted in the African Journals Online (AJOL) platform, making it more accessible to the African and indeed, international scientific community
- The journal has need to get Thompson Reuters’ Impact factor
- We have need to update the journal’s manuscript submission and tracking processes.
- Many of our assessors are getting increasingly busy thereby delaying review processes
- STRATEGIES TO ENHANCE THE CAPACITY OF THE JOURNALS
- Employ more staff for improved administrative functions
- Strive more to gain Thompson Reuters impact factor assignment
- Improve the visibility of the Journal through the social media
- Put in more efforts to ensure prompt review and publication of the journal
- Source funds to support the journal in the improvement of quality
- ANY OTHER INFORMATION
Journal ISSN – 1596-8499
The journal is published bi-annually. Manuscripts will be accepted for review all-year round in triplicates, or in electronic form, from the above listed disciplines. Such papers may include original research, case studies, surveys, and reviews.
Manuscripts should be submitted on the understanding that they have not been published in, accepted for publication in. or submitted at the same time, to another journal within or outside the country. Once accepted for publication, all manuscripts are subject to editorial changes and shall become the property of JOURNAL OF PHARMACEUTICAL AND ALLIED SCIENCES (JOPHAS). All accepted manuscripts shall attract a page charge of N800 per page, payable in cash, cheque or money transfer, and will come out either as regular article or short communication.
Acceptance of papers will be based upon the originality of the observation or investigation, the quality of the work described as well as the clarity of presentation.
All figures must be in black ink on separate pages. All tables should also be on separate pages.
Manuscripts should be organized under the following headings: Title, Author (s), with an asterisk on the corresponding author, Abstract, Introduction, Materials and Methods, Results and Discussion Conclusion, Acknowledgment and References.
References should be single-spaced and according to the order in which they appeared in the text. All authors should be listed. Example:
For Journal Articles
Ame, J. A., Joseph, B. K. and Jones, K. A. (2002) Use of starch from cassava as binder in chloroquine tablet formulations, J. Pharm. Sci., 50: 1 – 6.
For Books Authors, Year of Publication, Title of book, Publisher, Edition, Place of publication and Pages should be included in that order.
All manuscripts, typed on one side only of an A-4 paper in double line spacing and 1.25 inches margins, should be submitted to:
TABLES OF CONTENT/FULL PAPERS OF JOPHAS VOLUME 11 NUMBERS 1 AND 2.
VOLUME 11 NUMBER 1 (2014)
TABLE OF CONTENTS
JOURNAL OF PHARMACEUTICAL AND ALLIED SCIENCES
VOLUME 11 NUMBER 1 (2014)
|Evaluation of sociodemographic characteristics of HIV/AIDs patients in a tertiary hospital
WO Aitalegbe and MN Femi-Oyewo
|Institutional profile of PHC facilities in Nigeria and its implications for PMTCT scale up and decentralization of HIV and AIDS: Nasarawa State as a case study
HO Isah and P Dakum
|Drug therapy problems in patients on antihypertensive and antidiabetic drugs in two tertiary health institutions in Niger Delta Region
KA Ganiyu, IA Suleiman, PO Erah
|Availability and affordability of antiglaucoma drugs in Benin City, Nigeria
SF Usifoh, WA Udezi
|Improvement of the crystal stability and dissolution profile of metronidazole by composite formation with MCC and cashew gum
|Antidiabetic drug utilization by elderly patients in a tertiary hospital in Western Nigeria
WA Ojieabu, PO Erah
|Pharmacists intervention to reduce drug-related problems in the treatment of HIV/AIDS patients on HAART in a tertiary health facillity in Southern Nigeria
SI Bello, AN Onunu, PO Erah
EVALUATION OF SOCIO-DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS OF HIV/AIDS PATIENTS IN A TERTIARY HOSPITAL
1OJIEABU WINIFRED AITALEGBE, AND 2FEMI-OYEWO M.N
1DEPARTMENT OF CLINICAL PHARMACY AND BIOPHARMACY, 2DEPARTMENT OF PHARMACEUTICS AND PHARMACEUTICAL TECHNOLOGY, FACULTY OF PHARMACY, SAGAMU, OLABISI ONABANJO UNIVERSITY, AGO IWOYE, OGUN STATE, NIGERIA.
1Corresponding author, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; Tel: +234-803-712-6245
The HIV/AIDS epidemic in Nigeria has rapidly gained momentum and is now a public health concern. This study was carried out to assess the socio-demographics of HIV/AIDS patients who accessed treatment at OOUTH, Sagamu, Ogun, Nigeria. It involved a retrospective review of medical records obtained from the Community Medicine and Primary Care Unit which contained information on patients who received treatment between January 2007 and December 2009. The total number of case notes studied was 362. The result indicated that 61% of the study population were females. Age range, 20-40 years of both the female and male groups had the highest representations of 41% and 21% respectively. Majority (45%) were married, 38% had no formal education while, 33% were traders. The study showed a higher HIV/AIDS prevalence within the ages of 21 and 60 years and females were mostly affected. This study thus suggests a system for implementation of specific and focused educational programs among this age range.
Keywords: Socio-demographics, HIV/AID, Retrospective, Teaching hospital.
INSTITUTIONAL PROFILE OF PHC FACILITIES IN NIGERIA AND ITS IMPLICATION FOR PMTCT SCALE-UP AND DECENTRALIZATION OF HIV AND AIDS SERVICES: NASARAWA STATE AS A CASE STUDY
HO ISAH*, P DAKUM*
*INSTITUTE OF HUMAN VIROLOGY-NIGERIA, ABUJA, NIGERIA
Corresponding Author: Dr Haroun O. Isah, email@example.com
Part of the national strategic plans for improved coverage and uptake of HIV and AIDS services in Nigeria include decentralization and scale up of HIV and AIDS services with focus on the country’s PHC system. There is however the need to determine the system’s readiness, capacity and capability as a domain for attaining this twin goal. This is critical to ensure the sustenance of quality of ensuing services. Nasarawa State, the case study in this review, is one of the states with a higher-than-the-national HIV sero-prevalence rate. Like in many of the states in the country, it desires to achieve an increased coverage and uptake of HIV and AIDS services through its scale up and decentralization plan. Towards this, it carried out a state-led statewide assessment of its PHC facilities in 2013. A review of assessment reports of 287 PHC facilities in Nasarawa State with focus on infrastructural profile, accessibility throughout the year, operating time (days and hours) of the facilities, human resources for health, services being provided and availability of basic laboratory services was carried out to determine the status of the facilities. With the exception for of family planning services in 54% of the Primary Health Care centres, adequate space for laboratory, pharmacy and HIV counseling services was found in less than 50% of the facilities. Ongoing HIV counseling and testing, DOTS and basic laboratory services were found in less than 50% of the facilities. Widespread paucity of skilled manpower such as physicians and nursing and midwifery staff was observed, being respectively available in 1% and 4% of the sites, with more than 80% of the manpower being of lower skilled health care providers. The study indicates gaps in the capacity of the PHC system, an example of what the state of PHC is in many states in Nigeria, indicating the need for pre-implementation system strengthening to ensure the accommodation of decentralization and scale up process. To address them would require judicious input of resources for health system strengthening that would enhance its capacity to provide quality HIV and AIDS services.
Key words: PHC, HIV and AIDS, Decentralization and Scale Up
DRUG THERAPY PROBLEMS IN PATIENTS ON ANTIHYPERTENSIVES AND ANTIDIABETIC DRUGS IN TWO TERTIARY HEALTH INSTITUTIONS IN NIGER DELTA REGION, NIGERIA
KEHINDE A GANIYU,*1,2 ISMAIL A SULEIMAN,1 PATRICK O ERAH2
1DEPARTMENT OF CLINICAL PHARMACY AND PHARMACY PRACTICE, FACULTY OF PHARMACY, NIGER DELTA UNIVERSITY, WILBERFORCE ISLAND, AMASSOMA, BAYELSA STATE, NIGERIA.
2DEPARTMENT OF CLINICAL PHARMACY AND PHARMACY PRACTICE, FACULTY OF PHARMACY, UNIVERSITY OF BENIN, BENIN CITY, NIGERIA
Drug therapy problems (DTPs), with the associated risks inherent in antihypertensive and antidiabetic therapy require utmost attention. This present study was aimed at assessing the DTPs observed in the management of hypertension and diabetes mellitus (DM) in two tertiary health facilities in Niger Delta region. In this retrospective study, 531 randomly selected case notes of hypertensive and/or diabetic patients who attended the health facilities in 2011 and 2012 were evaluated for DTPs. The mean patients’ age was 55.70±12.23 years with the elderly patients constituting 70.2% of the population studied. Overall, average numbers of drugs per prescription in the first-month and the fourth–month of drug therapy considered were 4.91±1.96 and 4.92±1.70 (p>0.05), with associated mean DTP values of 1.54±1.08 and 1.46±1.20 (p>0.05) respectively. Using Beer’s/STOPP/START criteria, 21.5% and 22.8% of all DTPs at therapy initiation and last clinic visit were identified in older patients. Unnecessary drug therapy was the most observed DTP in the first month and fourth-month (23.6%, 29.4%) of drug therapy in all the patients and was closely followed by wrong drug therapy (23.4%, 22.9%), need for additional drug therapy (20.9%, 17.4%), non-adherence (15.4%, 13.8%), and drug interactions (12.9%, 9.6%). Other DTPs observed, though to lesser extents were dosage too low (1.5 %, 5.2 %), adverse drug reaction (1.4 %, 1.3 %) and dosage too high (0.9 %, 0.4 %) respectively. There was thus, high incidence of DTPs in the hypertensive and/or diabetic patients studied. Unnecessary drug therapy and wrong drug therapy were the most frequently observed DTPs.
Keywords: Antidiabetic medications, antihypertensive medications, diabetes mellitus, drug therapy problem, hypertension, Niger Delta, Nigeria
AVAILABILITY AND AFFORDABILITY OF ANTIGLAUCOMA DRUGS IN BENIN CITY, NIGERIA.
- F. USIFOH* AND W. A. UDEZI
DEPARTMENT OF CLINICAL PHARMACY AND PHARMACY PRACTICE,
FACULTY OF PHARMACY, UNIVERSITY OF BENIN, BENIN CITY. NIGERIA.
Correspondence: firstname.lastname@example.org; +234-8056226668, 07068589868
Glaucoma is a leading cause of blindness. Affordability and availability are key factors that determine access to effective treatment. The aim of this study is to investigate the availability and affordability of antiglaucoma medicines in Benin City. A cross sectional survey of the major drug distribution sectors was conducted. The strength, unit pack, brand name and lowest priced generics (LPG) were recorded. Physical sighting of product was done to confirm availability in any facility. Data collected were sorted and analyzed using WakAfford1.0. (A Medicine Affordability Calculator) that we developed for this study, based on USD103 (NGN17, 000) minimum wage per month for the least paid government worker. Graph pad Instat was used for inferential analysis. The branded or innovator products in private pharmacies had 47.22% availability, followed by private clinics 38% and lastly the public hospitals 25%, while the generic medicines had 25% availability in private pharmacies, 22.22% in clinics and 19.44% in public hospitals. The most affordable branded product in private pharmacies is acetazolamide tablets (0.16 ± 0.02 days) and timolol 0.5% eye drop (0.59 ± 0.04 days), while the most unaffordable product is Combigan (12.71 ± 0.17 days). The public hospital had same trend, the least affordable medicine being Diamox and most unaffordable was Xalacomb. However, timolol 0.25% was the most affordable in private clinics while Xalacomb was the most unaffordable. The availability of antiglaucoma drugs in Benin City is suboptimal and some are unaffordable across the different sectors. Government and donor agencies should subsidize and make them accessible to patients.
Keywords: Availability, Affordability, Antiglaucoma
IMPROVEMENT OF THE CRYSTAL STABILITY AND DISSOLUTION PROFILE OF METRONIDAZOLE BY COMPOSITE FORMATION WITH MICROCRYSTALLINE CELLULOSE AND CASHEW GUM
OKOYE, E. I.
DEPARTMENT OF PHARMACEUTICS AND PHARMACEUTICAL TECHNOLOGY, FACULTY OF PHARMACEUTICAL SCIENCES, NNAMDI AZIKIWE UNIVERSITY, AWKA, ANAMBRA STATE, NIGERIA
Correspondence: email@example.com; Tel: +234(0)8052742521
This study was undertaken to improve the solubility of metronidazole by modifying its crystal characteristics using pharmaceutical excipients. Metronidazole granules were formulated with cashew gum (2 – 8% w/w) and microcrystalline cellulose (10% w/w) via kneading, solid dispersion, or physical mixing. Resulting products were characterized: micromeritics, moisture sorption, thermal analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and dissolution test. The products exhibited passable/poor flow characteristics; and moisture sorbed was least for granules from kneading process. Melting point and heat of fusion for metronidazole were 163.0oC and 757.8 J/g respectively. Composites’ thermograms revealed that melting point and heat of fusion of metronidazole increased with increase in cashew gum concentration, which indicated higher crystal stability. FTIR spectrum of metronidazole showed peaks of various intensities between 740 and 3415 cm-1.The spectra of the composites were similar to that of the drug, in that every peak present in the drug’s spectrum was observed in the composites’ spectra with minor shifts. Amount of drug released over 60 min was > 80% for composites and < 65% for pure drug. Among the composites, drug release was highest from those containing 8% w/w cashew gum especially from solid dispersion products. The values of the similarity factor showed that while composites from physical mixing displayed similar dissolution profiles with the pure drug, those from kneading and solid dispersion showed dissimilar profiles. The results of this study suggest that cashew gum unlike other polymers improved the solubility of metronidazole by causing the formation of anhydrous instead of amorphous state.
Keywords: Cashew gum, improved metronidazole solubility, anhydrous state, particle engineering.
ANTI DIABETIC DRUG UTILIZATION BY ELDERLY PATIENTS IN A TERTIARY HOSPITAL IN WESTERN NIGERIA
1OJIEABU WINIFRED AITALEGHE AND 2*ERAH PATRICK O
1DEPARTMENT OF CLINICAL PHARMACY AND BIOPHARMACY, FACULTY OF PHARMACY, OLABISI ONABANJO UNIVERSITY, OGUN STATE, NIGERIA.
2*PHARMACOTHERAPY GROUP, FACULTY OF PHARMACY, UNIVERSITY OF BENIN, BENIN CITY, NIGERIA.
*For Correspondence: E-mail: Patrick.firstname.lastname@example.org
This study is intended to determine the pattern and rational use of drugs in the elderly diabetic patients in a tertiary health care facility in Western Nigeria. This was a retrospective study involving 173 case files of elderly diabetic patients treated in the Endocrinology Clinic of Olabisi Onabanjo University Teaching Hospital (OOUTH) between January 2010 and December 2011 which were assessed for relevant data including sociodemographic characteristics, clinical information, pattern of prescribed medications, number of drugs per prescription encountered by patients etc. The primary outcome was the pattern of drug use while the secondary outcome was inappropriate use of drugs. Diabetes prevalence was higher in females (64.1%) than in males in the facility. About 95% of the total patients were treated for diabetes type 2, 46.8% were obese while 86.6% were living with FBS >126 mg/dl. Hypertension (87.3%) was the commonest comorbidity. The range, 2-3 drugs per prescription was mostly encountered for patients aged 50-59 years, while 4-5 drugs per prescription was most common among patients older than 65 years. Metformin was the most commonly prescribed antidiabetic medication for the patients followed by glimepiride (52.8%) (highest within age 50-59 years) and then pioglitazone (48.7%) (also highest within age group >65 years old), while the most commonly prescribed antihypertensive was angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (32.4%). The most commonly prescribed potentially inappropriate medication was aspirin (54.9%) with its preponderance in age group 60-65 years (61.4%) followed by pioglitazone (43.4%) with preponderance in age group >65years (48.7%).
Key words: Diabetes, elderly, prescription pattern, potentially inappropriate medications
PHARMACISTS’ INTERVENTION TO REDUCE DRUG RELATED PROBLEMS IN HIV/AIDS PATIENTS ON HAART IN A TERTIARY HEALTH FACILITY IN SOUTHERN NIGERIA
SHAKIRAT I BELLO1,3, ABEL N ONUNU2, AND PATRICK O ERAH3*
1DEPARTMENT OF CLINICAL PHARMACY AND PHARMACY PRACTICE, FACULTY OF PHARMACEUTICAL SCIENCES, UNIVERSITY OF ILORIN, ILORIN, NIGERIA Email: email@example.com
2DEPARTMENT OF INTERNAL MEDICINE, UNIVERSITY OF BENIN TEACHING HOSPITAL, BENIN CITY, NIGERIA Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
3DEPARTMENT OF CLINICAL PHARMACY AND PHARMACY PRACTICE, FACULTY OF PHARMACY, UNIVERSITY OF BENIN, BENIN CITY, NIGERIA Email: email@example.com
*For correspondence: firstname.lastname@example.org Tel: +234-805-526-3622
Despite advances in the use of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in the management of HIV/AIDS, drug-related problems (DRPs) still remain an issue, particularly in developing countries. This study evaluated the incidence of DRPs among HIV/AIDS patients in a HIV/AIDS care centre in southern Nigeria and the impact of pharmacist’s intervention in reducing the problems. Two hundred and ninety-seven (297) HIV/AIDS out-patients (age, 41±11.3 yrs) on HAART previously for at least 2 years that were refilling their HAART drugs at Infectious Diseases Clinic in University of Benin Teaching Hospital (UBTH), Benin City based on pharmacy order form (POF), were recruited for the study. Patients’ DRPs data were collected on recruitment (baseline) and the 269 patients with DRPs were followed by the pharmacist at 3, 6 and 9 months with education/counselling of patients and their prescribers were contacted as appropriate. At baseline, 652 DRPs were recorded in 90.6% of the 297 patients recruited out of which 29.4% are directly related to the use of the POF. DRPs observed were generic drug substitution (28.7%), inappropriate drug adherence (17.5%), dosing interval not indicated (12.7%), dose not indicated (10.6%), inadequate patient’s knowledge of appropriate drug use (9.4%), drug-drug interactions (7.8%), side effects (7.2%), dosage too low (3.2%), dosage too high (2.0%) and wrongly prescribed drug (0.9%). In the 9th month following pharmacist’s intervention 61.2% of the identified DRPs were partially solved and 38.8% were completely resolved among the 194 patients not lost to follow-up. Also, all DRPs related to the use of POF were completely resolved. Active participation of clinical pharmacists in the care of HIV/AIDS patients is vital in the prevention and reduction of DRPs in HIV/AIDS patients undergoing ambulatory care.
Keywords: Drug related problems, HIV/AIDS, generic substitution, overdose, under dose, drug interac
VOLUME 11 NUMBER 2
TABLE OF CONTENTS
JOURNAL OF PHARMACEUTICAL AND ALLIED SCIENCES
VOLUME 11 NUMBER 1 (2014)
|Prescription patterns and utilisation of antihypertensive drugs in a specialist hospital in port-harcourt
Eraga, SO, Odili, VU. and Mukoro, EE.
|Students’ perception, attitude and use of herbal medicine in a tertiary institution in nigeria
Patience O. Adomi
|Assessment of professional responsibilities of pharmacists towards the use of dietary supplements in benin city
Ikponmwosa M Osarenmwinda, Patrick O Erah, J S Soni
|Preliminary investigation into the use of lima bean (phaseolus lunatus) starch as a tablet disintegrant
Eraga Sylvester Okhuelegbe, Erebor Joan Onyebuchi, Iwuagwu Magnus Amara
|Determinants and predictors of quality of life of hypertension and type 2 diabetes outpatients in a nigerian hospital
Jeffrey S Soni, Azuka C Oparah , MI Osarenmwinda.
|Chemical and nutritional values of maize and maize products obtained from selected markets in kaduna
Sule Enyisi I, V.J. Umoh, CMZ. Whong, O Alabi ., I.O. Abdullahi
|Determination of binding affinities of some approved drugs to ascaris suum mitochondrial rhodoquinol-fumarate reductase by in silico molecular docking
Uzochukwu Ikemefuna C., Olubiyi, Olujide O. and Akpojotor, Clementina O.
PRESCRIPTION PATTERNS AND UTILISATION OF ANTIHYPERTENSIVE DRUGS IN A SPECIALIST HOSPITAL IN PORT-HARCOURT
*1ERAGA, S.O., 2ODILI, V.U. AND 1MUKORO, E.E.
1DEPARTMENT OF PHARMACEUTICS AND PHARMACEUTICAL TECHNOLOGY, FACULTY OF PHARMACY, UNIVERSITY OF BENIN, BENIN CITY, 300001.
2DEPARTMENT OF CLINICAL PHARMACY AND PHARMACY PRACTICE,
FACULTY OF PHARMACY, UNIVERSITY OF BENIN,
BENIN CITY, 300001.
*Corresponding author: e-mail: email@example.com, Tel: +2348030884928
The aim of the study is to investigate the prescribing pattern and drug use in the management of essential hypertension in a specialist hospital and its conformity to the JNC VII and WHO/ISH management guidelines. A total of 1572 prescriptions from 490 case files of hypertensive patients (> 18 years) attending the Out-patients Departments of a Specialist Hospital between May and October 2012, were retrospectively surveyed. The most prescribed antihypertensive drug class was calcium channel blockers (32.44%), followed by ACE Inhibitors, (18.06%), diuretics (13.93%), fixed dose combinations (10.75%) and anxiolytics and low dose Aspirin grouped as others (14.12%). Individually, amlodipine (26.53%) was the most prescribed drug followed by Lisinopril (13.36%), hydrochlorothiazide + amiloride (Moduretic) (12.02%), Lexotan (9.29%), hydrochlorothiazide + Valsatan (Co-Diovan)(6.42%), nifedipine (5.92%), and methyldopa (5.53%). Combination therapy (73.38%) was used more commonly than monotherapy (22.50%). Among the combination therapies, 2- drug therapy (28.97%) was more preferred while the 3-drug and 4-drug therapies of diuretic + 2 drugs and Fixed Dose Combination + 2 drugs (11.62% each) were most commonly used. The study also shows that, of the 680 numbers of encounters, there were a total of 1544 drugs and 28 non-drug interventions. The average number of drugs per encounter was 2.3. The percentage of drug prescribed by generic name is 31.2% (482), while the percentage of encounter with antibiotics and injections was 0.7% each. The pattern of antihypertensive utilization complied partially with the JNC 7 Guideline and WHO/ISH 1999 Guidelines but did not conform to the Essential Drug List Act of Nigeria.
Keywords: Antihypertensives, prescription pattern, drug utilization, treatment guideline
STUDENTS’ PERCEPTION, ATTITUDE AND USE OF HERBAL MEDICINE IN A TERTIARY INSTITUTION IN NIGERIA
PATIENCE O. ADOMI
DEPARTMENT OF MEDICAL MICROBIOLOGY AND PARASITOLOGY,
FACULTY OF CLINICAL SCIENCES, DELTA STATE UNIVERSITY, ABRAKA, NIGERIA
CORRESPONDENCE: PADOMI.ADOMI07@GMAIL.COM PHONE: 08022824106
The demographic data, perception, attitude and use of herbal medicine among students offering a medically related course in a state university in a southern university in Nigeria was studied. A total of 193 self-administered questionnaires were distributed among students of 16years and above. Of these, 52.32% were males and 47.66% were females. About 53.90% of the respondents are aware and had used herbal medicine, while 46.09% do not use herbal medicine at all.. Both sexes agreed that herbal medicines are effective for treating disease. The males, more than the females had better response on attitude and perception of herbal medicine. The reason adduced for non- usage include lack of specification of dosage, contamination of products and not being sure of microbial quality. The females were more inclined to herbal use than males. The respondents recommended that herbal medicine should not be used by children, most probably due to lack of dosage of herbal products. There was significant difference between male and female responses to the various questions posed.
Keywords: Herbal medicine, males, females, students, attitude, perception, usage.
ASSESSMENT OF PROFESSIONAL RESPONSIBILITIES OF PHARMACISTS TOWARDS THE USE OF DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS IN BENIN CITY
*IKPONMWOSA M OSARENMWINDA, PATRICK O ERAH, J S SONI
DEPARTMENT OF CLINICAL PHARMACY AND PHARMACY PRACTICE, UNIVERSITY OF BENIN, BENIN CITY, NIGERIA
CORRESPONDING EMAIL: IKMOND@YAHOO.COM PHONE NO: +2348033925071
Dietary supplements (DS) are widely sold in pharmacies. In developing countries like Nigeria. Although there are no available data on the prevalence of use of DS, pharmacies sell many nutrition products used by the community. Patients generally depend on pharmacists for advice and information on drugs, including DS. This study is aimed at determining pharmacists’ acceptance of their professional responsibilities towards use of dietary supplements. A total of 140 questionnaires were self-administered to both hospital and community pharmacists in Benin City. Responses were evaluated using descriptive statistics and logistic regression analysis. The overall response rate was 86.4%. Responsibilities towards the use of vitamins/mineral supplements, nutraceuticals and herbal supplements were accepted by 85.4%, 47.5% and 24.1% of the pharmacists, respectively. The responsibilities that have most support were that of “knowledge” and “counseling” (p<0.001, p<0.05). The “documentation” of responsibility relating to reporting suspected adverse events to DS was poor for all the three different DS types. Years of experience, level of education and position at work of the pharmacist were the most common factors associated with the acceptance of DS-related professional responsibilities (p<0.001, p<0.05). The study showed that pharmacists accepted professional responsibilities differently for the different dietary supplement types. Other than vitamins/mineral supplements, the acceptance of professional responsibilities for the use of DS was poor.
Keywords: Vitamins/minerals, dietary supplements, herbal supplements, nutraceuticals, Pharmacists’ counseling and responsibilities.
PRELIMINARY INVESTIGATION INTO THE USE OF LIMA BEAN (PHASEOLUS LUNATUS) STARCH AS A TABLET DISINTEGRANT
*ERAGA SYLVESTER OKHUELEGBE, EREBOR JOAN ONYEBUCHI, IWUAGWU MAGNUS AMARA
DEPARTMENT OF PHARMACEUTICS AND PHARMACEUTICAL TECHNOLOGY,
FACULTY OF PHARMACY, UNIVERSITY OF BENIN, BENIN CITY, 300001,
*Corresponding author: E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org, Tel: +2348030884928
The disintegrant efficiency of starch obtained from Lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus) was evaluated. The starch from the seeds was extracted and its disintegrant ability was compared with that of maize starch BP in paracetamol based tablets at concentrations of 0, 2.5, 5, 7.5 and 10 %w/w. The following properties of the starch powders were evaluated; organoleptic properties, microscopy and reaction with iodine solution, bulk and tapped density, Hausner’s ratio and Carr’s compressibility index. Paracetamol tablets formulated were evaluated for uniformity of weight, dimensions, hardness, friability, disintegration time and dissolution rate. The paracetamol granules and tablets formulated with 0 – 10 %w/w Phaseolus lunatus starch as disintegrant were comparable in granule flow properties, tablet weight variation and hardness, friability, disintegration time and dissolution rate with the granules and tablets prepared with maize starch B.P. At an optimum concentration of 10 %w/w, Phaseolus lunatus starch tablets, with a shorter disintegration time of 2.43 min, performed better than that of maize starch BP with a time of 4.55 min. The study revealed that Phaseolus lunatus starch can be used as a disintegrant in the production of tablets of acceptable pharmaceutical quality and at its optimum concentration, can be used as a suitable substitute for maize starch as a disintegrant in the formulation of paracetamol tablets.
Keywords: Paracetamol tablets, Wet granulation, Phaseolus lunatus starch, Disintegrant efficiency
DETERMINANTS AND PREDICTORS OF QUALITY OF LIFE OF HYPERTENSION AND TYPE 2 DIABETES OUTPATIENTS IN A NIGERIAN HOSPITAL
JEFFREY S SONI, AZUKA C OPARAH , MI OSARENMWINDA.
DEPARTMENT OF CLINICAL PHARMACY & PHARMACY, UNIVERSITY OF BENIN, 300001, BENIN CITY, NIGERIA
Corresponding Author: Tel: +2348038190403; Email: email@example.com
Health-related Quality of Life (HRQoL) is emerging as an important outcome in hypertension and diabetes studies. This study aimed to assess the quality of life of hypertension and diabetes patients, in comparison with healthy individuals, to determine socio-demographic and other characteristics affecting quality of life domains of the patients and to identify the predictors of such quality of life. A prospective, cross-sectional, non-randomized, observational study was conducted, in the Consultant Outpatients Pharmacy Department of University of Benin Teaching Hospital. Two- sided independent sample t-tests, and one-way ANOVA, were used to compare means across groups; Fishers exact test was employed to test for proportion, while stepwise multiple linear regression was applied to model the influence of socio- demographic and clinical variables of the patients. Participants were 297 patients (67% females) and 72 healthy volunteers (56% females). Of the participants in the patient group, 192 (64.6%) had only hypertension. Twenty-one, 21 (6.1%) had diabetes only, while 84 (28.2%) had both hypertension and diabetes. Cronbach’s alpha ranged from 0.547-0.799 and 0.628 – 0.708 for patients and healthy groups respectively. Healthy individuals’ QoL scores were slightly higher than the patients’ QoL scores. Education, income, and improved health status were found to significantly affect QoL in hypertension/or diabetes patients. Quality of life of patients with hypertension and diabetes was found to be lower than the healthy individuals in all the domains except the environment domain. Quality of life was also found to be higher in patients whose blood pressure was controlled than those with uncontrolled blood pressure. Furthermore, education, income and current heath status were the major predictors of QoL in hypertension and diabetes patients.
Key words: Quality of life (QoL), hypertension, diabetes, determinants, predictors and Health related quality of life (HRQoL).
CHEMICAL AND NUTRITIONAL VALUES OF MAIZE AND MAIZE PRODUCTS OBTAINED FROM SELECTED MARKETS IN KADUNA
1 SULE ENYISI .I, 2V.J. UMOH, 2C.M.Z. WHONG, 2O ALABI 2I.O. ABDULLAHI
1 DEPARTMENT OF APPLIED SCIENCE, COLLEGE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, KADUNA POLYTECHNIC, KADUNA
2 DEPARTMENT OF MICROBIOLOGY, AHMADU BELLO UNIVERSITY, ZARIA, KADUNA STATE, NIGERIA
Corresponding author, firstname.lastname@example.org
Maize and maize products in selected grain markets within Kaduna, Nigeria, were obtained and investigated for proximate and mineral composition analysis using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS) and flame photometer. Proximate composition of maize and maize products were in the range of 11.6- 20 .0% (moisture), 1.10 – 2.95% (Ash), 4.50 – 9.87% (protein), 2.17-4.43 (fat), 2.10- 26.70% (fibre) and 44.60- 69.60% (carbohydrate). Significant differences exist between the mean values of the nutrient content of all the products except for moisture (P≤ 0.05). Mineral elements of the maize and maize products namely: phosphorus, magnesium and potassium were found to be high compared to other elements: zinc, calcium, copper, sodium, manganese and iron. Higher percentages of these minerals were concentrated in the maize bran.
Keywords: Cereal, Flame photometer, Maize bran, mineral element, proximate composition,
DETERMINATION OF BINDING AFFINITIES OF SOME APPROVED DRUGS TO ASCARIS SUUM MITOCHONDRIAL RHODOQUINOL-FUMARATE REDUCTASE BY IN SILICO MOLECULAR DOCKING
*1UZOCHUKWU IKEMEFUNA C., 2OLUBIYI, OLUJIDE O. AND 1AKPOJOTOR, CLEMENTINA O.
1DEPARTMENT OF PHARMACEUTICAL AND MEDICINAL CHEMISTRY,
FACULTY OF PHARMACEUTICAL SCIENCES, NNAMDI AZIKIWE UNIVERSITY, PMB 5025 AWKA 420281, ANAMBRA STATE, NIGERIA
2DEPARTMENT OF PHARMACOLOGY AND THERAPEUTICS, COLLEGE OF MEDICINE AND HEALTH SCIENCES, AFE BABALOLA UNIVERSITY, ADO-EKITI, EKITI STATE, NIGERIA.
The binding affinity of a drug for a receptor describes how avidly the drug binds to the receptor. Drug-receptor binding determines the ability to produce a pharmacological response and to some extent the size of that response. The study investigated the binding affinities of some approved drugs to Ascaris suum mitochondrial rhodoquinol-fumarate reductase(MRFR), an essential Ascaris enzyme, by in silico molecular docking simulations. Twenty eight approved drugs were carefully selected based on the possibility of their pharmacological action on Ascaris smooth muscles or antiparasitic activities. Selected drugs were obtained from ZINC® database as mol2 files and further prepared for docking simulations using AutoDock tools v. 1.5.6. Ascaris MRFR was obtained as pdb file (3vra) from the Protein Data Bank and further prepared for docking simulations using both Chimera v. 1.8.1 and AutoDock tools v. 1.5.6. In order to validate the docking protocol, the binding of atpenin, an experimental anthelmintic compound, to MRFR was successfully reproduced in silico. Docking simulations were performed using AutoDockVina 4.0 on a Linux platform. Docking results were analyzed using PyMol v.0.99r c6. Molecular dynamics was employed for the validation of complexed frontrunner approved drugs. Binding free energies of -8.60, -7.75 and -7.50 kcal/mol were obtained for atovaquone, carvedilol and atpenin respectively. Zero binding free energies were recorded for tinidazole, piperazine, bithionol, thiabendazole and metronidazole. Molecular dynamics simulations of atovaquone and carvedilol complexed with the reductase enzyme revealed a strongly favourable binding with likely favourable entropic term in the case of carvedilol. Atovaquone and carvedilol were thus predicted as frontrunner approved drugs with possible anthelmintic activities comparable to atpenin. In vitro and in vivo investigations into the anthelmintic activities of atovaquone and carvedilol are recommended.
Key-words: Ascaris, docking, molecular dynamics, anthelmintics, drug repurposing.
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