Nsukka Journal of Humanities

Nsukka Journal of Humanities


Faculty of Arts,

University of Nigeria, Nsukka.






Census, Listing and Strengthening of UNN-based journals


  • The names, names of editors and editorial board members: The Board, Nsukka Journal of Humanities are constituted as follows:


Editorial Board

Prof. B. M. Mbah, (Editor-in-Chief)

Dr. Chidi M. Amaechi, (Secretary to the Editorial Board)

Dr. Ikenna E. Onwuegbuna

Dr. Apex A. Apeh

Dr. Mrs Cindy Ezeugwu

Dr. Mrs Emmanuela Asadu

Dr. Mrs Chidinma Oguamanam

Dr. Jude M. C. Agbo

Mr. Nnaemeka C. Egwuibe

Mr. Celestine Gever

Editorial Consultants

Prof. E. Nwabueze – University of Nigeria, Nsukka

Prof. O. K. Onyeoku–University of Nigeria, Nsukka

Prof. E. E. Okafor – University of Nigeria, Nsukka

Prof. A. I. Okpoko – University of Nigeria, Nsukka

Prof. C. T. Maduka – University of Port Harcourt, Port Harcourt.

Prof. U. D. Anyanwu – Imo State University, Owerri.

Prof. V. O. Aire – University of Jos, Jos.

Prof. Fernando Lambert – Universite Laval, Quebec.

Prof. U. C. Anyanwu – University of Nigeria, Nsukka

Prof. A. N. Akwanya – University of Nigeria, Nsukka

Prof. Okebalama – University of Nigeria, Nsukka

Prof. D. U. Opata – University of Nigeria, Nsukka

Prof. S. Onuigbo – University of Nigeria, Nsukka

Prof. P. U. Okpoko – University of Nigeria, Nsukka

Prof. C. Onyeji – University of Nigeria, Nsukka

Prof. R. I. Okorji – University of Nigeria, Nsukka

Prof. C. I. Ikekeonwu – University of Nigeria, Nsukka

Prof. M. O. Iwuchukwu – University of Nigeria, Nsukka

Prof. I. Ikwubuzo – University of Lagos

Prof. Nnanyelugo Okoro – University of Nigeria, Nsukka


Tel: +234 803 722 0670

       +234 803 853 5106

       +234 817 075 1088

Email:     njh.fa@unn.edu.ng

Website: www.nsukkajournalofthehumanities.com


Dr. Chidi M. Amaechi – Secretary to the Editorial Board
Room 135, Block B,
Faculty of Arts Complex,
University of Nigeria, Nsukka


  • The current address of the journal: Faculty of Arts, University of Nigeria, Nsukka.
  • The scope of the journal: It is a multi-disciplinary and comparative journal covering the entire spectrum of the arts and related disciplines in the Social Sciences, Education, Technology and Law
  • Previous and current issues of the journals – Table of contents with abstracts and/or full texts: (See attachment 1)
  • Current websites of the journals: http://www.nsukkajournalofthehumanities.com
  • Current publishers of the journals: Faculty of Arts, University of Nigeria, Nsukka.
  • Strengths and Weaknesses of the journals:


  1. Wide readership, given the large size of the faculty (staff and students) and allied disciplines.
  2. Good editorial team (the faculty hosts department of English and Literary Studies, Theater and Film Studies, History and International Studies, etc) whose tools constitute mainly English.
  • Quality ICT team.
  1. Sound intellectual capital.


  1. Poor funding
  2. Low sales of journal as a result of university policy.
  • Insistence of university administration on the use of Thomson Reuters, SNIP and Scopus Impact Factor for staff promotion, resulting in declining patronage by contributors.
  • Opportunities and Threats of the journals


  1. We have specialist skills that manage the journal.
  2. Good reputation as a result of long-term quality production (the journal started in 1987 and has been on ever since).
  • Global recognition of our product.




  1. Low moral of staff due to Impact Factor provision.
  2. Dwindling commitment to leaning and research as a result of the above.

Strategies to enhance the capacity of the journals

  • Global visibility of the journal through online publication and ultimate registration with Thomson
  • Reuters.Expansion of editorial team to include scholars across the globe.

Diversification of sales effort including electronic sales.

Thank you.


Dr. Paul Obi-Ani


Attachment 1


4) Previous and current issues of the journals – Table of contents with abstracts and/or full texts

Nsukka Journal of the Humanities, Number 22 (March 2014)

 Title of Article: Changes in the Communication of Death and Funeral in Igboland: The Case of Owerri West Local Government Area of Imo State, Nigeria.
Author(s): Anyadike, Dominic O.


Westernisation has impacted greatly on Igbo traditions and cultural values. Dissemination and sharing of information on death and funeral in Owerri West Local Government Area of Imo State, Nigeria are no exceptions. Using the technique of documentary analysis, in-depth library research method and interview, this paper examined the changes in the modes and patterns of disseminating and sharing information on the dead from traditional to modern time in Owerri West Local Government Area. Also, the paper discussed how some of these modes of communication had discontinued, others modified by modernity while new communication modes and patterns emerged. Furthermore, the paper interpreted the impact of these changes on the value system of the people. The position of the paper is that those traditional modes which propagate the peoples’ values but devoid of fetish and superstitious beliefs should be protected from extinction while those that are extinct should be revived. This is necessary considering the fact that the values which are embedded in the cultural life of the group are necessary for the peaceful co-existence of the people.

Title of Article: THE AUDIENCE AND THE SOLO ACTOR: A Review of Audience Engagement Techinques Employed by Solo Performers.
Author(s): Greg Mbajiorgu


Author(s): E.I.ITANYI (Ph.D)



It has been observed that most artistic ideas in wood, clay, and metals in Igboland are expressed through traditional mural painting symbols which convey important lexical messages. This paper, seeks to bring to limelight , how the culture of Nsukka people and Igbo in general is expressed through the study of their traditional architectural wall paintings rendered in thorough naturally made indelible ink of “Uli” (black indigo), “Nzu”(natural clay), “Ufie”(red ochre gotten from plants), charcoal and other natural dyes in the form of leaves. These motifs touch on all aspects of Igbo life and serves as ethnographic evidence for studying the cultural history of the area in the absence of direct core archaeological evidence. The method applied in the course of carrying out this research is ethnographic method. This involves the collection of oral information from the extant members of the community that are knowledgeable in the topic of research. Primary secondary sources of information were used. The primary source of data came from oral tradition collected, while the secondary source came from documented literature on the topic of research. Pictures were also used for clarity sake.




In its narrow sense Feminism means Writings by women with women’s orientation. Aminata Sow Fall fits in perfectly well into the first criteria; she is inter alia a woman writer. As far as many feminist critics are concerned, Aminata Sow Fall’s writing are full of masculine, rather than female orientation. She calls for out-dated domestic and patriarchal values. Hence Authors like Nicki Hitchocott and Athleen Ellington see her novels as full of backward mentality. Feminism however has long crossed the threshold of “writings by women with women’s orientation.” Feminism, both in theory and praxis is ever-evolving. This is the era of Beyond Feminism. From its earliest Euro-American contexts, feminism has taken root in Africa as womanism, stiwanism and motherism. The African woman’s yearning and consciousness are far removed from her Euro-American counterpart’s female condition. The African woman is torn between her africaness and her femininity. Realistic answers to her problems are more likely to come from her dialogue with her roots. This is where Aminata Sow Fall’s womanism is based.

Author(s): Emeka E. Okonkwo and Okechukwu Anozie



The General Studies Programme provides students with a broad educational experience. The teaching and learning of aspects of archaeology through Humanities Unit is aimed at introducing students to the fundamentals of archaeology. This paper x-rays the role of GSP 208 in archaeology promotion with a view to identifying the aspects of archaeology taught in GSP 208, teaching and learning materials used by Humanities Unit and students’ understanding of aspects of archaeology prior and after GSP 208.


Key words: Teaching and learning, Archaeology, General studies programme, Nigerian peoples and cultures 


Author(s): Okorji Roseline Ijeoma and Nwankwegu Jeremiah Anene



The principles governing reduplication have been subjected to renewed scrutiny within Optimality Theory. Different languages have provided empirical domain for such investigation with the revelation that while certain principles of reduplicative phenomenon hold across languages, certain properties hold only in specific languages. Under this current impetus, this paper examines the reduplicative identity in zhi , a dialect of gbo language spoken in the south-eastern part of Nigeria. The model of identity examined in this study is based on McCarthy and Prince’s (1995, 1999) Correspondence Theory, a sub-theory of the Optimality theory, which proposes that correspondence is a relation that holds between two strings, encompassing the pairing of input to output, as well as the pairing between a reduplicant and its base. Though, reduplication ideally requires perfect identity between base and reduplicant on one hand, and between Input and output on the other, perfect identity is not always attained due to some templatic requirements and the constraint interactions in the language.

Author(s): Okorji Roseline Ijeoma and Nwankwere Angela Uloaku Ngozi



This paper focuses attention on question formation processes in the Igbo language spoken by Óweré people (Óweré satelite dialect of Igbo – OSD). This preliminary study attempted to descriptively examine the grammatical role of tone in OSD content questions. It also tried to trace the sources of development of the question morphemes employed in these content questions. The researchers used native speaker intuitive knowledge to generate the data. Also used was a body of data collected from chance comments from different contexts and conversations with other adult male and female native speakers of not less than fifty years of age, who have lived in their communities for the greater part of their lives. The data were compiled over a period of time. It is discovered that in Igbo, a terrace-level language, OSD exhibits certain peculiar tonal characteristics and questioning techniques lacking in other dialects. Among other things,in fast or spontaneous speech,OSD has the feature of pitch lowering in slow, emphatic speech, and pitch raising or heightening likened to upstep. The paper shows that the raising and lowering pitch features are very essential and add some pragmatic meaning to utterances in OSD. Introducing, in the Standard Igbo taught in schools, the linguistic art of identification and analysis of these pragmatic features of tone will enrich the Igbo language. 

Author(s): Ikechukwu Aloysius Orjinta.PhD(Munich), PhD(Ibadan).



The novels of chinua Achebe have been studied from various perspectives. Not much have been written about his attention on Gender. This article has taken a close look on Chinua Achebe’s feminist leaning as documented in Things Fall Apart and Arrow of God.Specifically, the attention of this article centers on the socio-political role of women in the selected novels of the above African writer. Elsewhere, feminists have made notable break-throughs in various fields of life. Without prejudice to the very few exceptions where they have been allowed to play presiding roles in cult, women are still generally excluded from the priestly roles. Achebe on the other hand notes that this was not the situation in the pre-colonial era. In the pre-colonial era, in most African societies, women who have attained menopause were allowed to play prophetic and priestly roles. Our guiding theoretical frameworks will feature feminism and beyond feminism.

Author(s): Jerome Ikechukwu Okonkwo and Ifeoma Obuasi



Ọnụọha (the people’s mouth) is a common Igbo concept and name which simply means the voice of the people. Igbo language, like any other language, is a human tool in the semantic space for integration, interpretation, and internalization of conventions of the states of affairs of the sociality of its users. Ọnụọha as Oluọha (people’s language), is seen in other world languages which presupposes that all languages are linguistically alike and equal. Ọnụọha and Oluọha command the commonness of an Igbo consensual vehicle (gateway) of ostensive propositional power of Igbo knowledge, perception, identity, phenomena, socio- and meta- physics, history, etc, just as is obtained is in the world-hood of other languages. This paper therefore presents the concept Ọnụọha as the language of the people (Oluọha) which is a fixate cannon for the possibilities of communal assessment of human knowledge. Through open ended oral interview with some elders in Igbo land, information was got on the oral performances which are represented in a chart. With the chart on Igbo oral performances, the paper concludes that there is not a one and only privileged way of seeing and developing the world as has been projected in the case of the mentality of the colonized. The paper ends with a call for rethink in the ways for strengthening and empowering the qha of the Igbo communities.

Keywords: Igbo language, Centrality, Equal Validity, Folk media, Qhaka, Qnxqha. 


Author(s): Christian Chukwuma Opata, and Sam Kenneth Iheanyi Chukwu, PhD


Abstract: Music is a specially intended sound that demands mental ingenuity as well as production skill specific to it as a specialized (specie-specific) human activity. The logic, didactics and intention of music must be of some predetermined value or benefit to man to warrant the carving out of special time, creative genius and ingenuity, as well as methods and objects of production. Every music as a human product has a life and logic. Among the Lejja people of South-eastern Nigeria, the logic of some of their music is to evoke fear, awe and other disturbing/provocative emotions in their cultural audience. Some of the music is used in their traditional setting to preserve their ancient iron smelting industry. Iron smelting is an ancient practice of extracting blooms from hematite by subjecting the hematite to intensive heating in a rotund mud structure called furnace. In this study, ethnographic data based on many years of field studies and participant observation would be used in conjunction with materials from relevant literatures. Using two songs and the music of a masked spirit omaba, believed to be the societies’ incarnate being, this study would examine how music is used in a traditional Igbo society to preserve and perpetuate the laws associated with iron smelting by serving as media through which verdicts of the community are communicated to those who violated laws relating to the industry and preventing people who may have the same intention with the culprit from performing the same abominable act. The study is anchored on the deterrent theory of punishment as in this community, any time these set of music are performed, it automatically means that an accused person has been excommunicated, banished or ostracized from the community after fair hearing. That marked the culprit’s final association with members of the community. The culprit, while exiting the community is made to dance to the tune of the masked spirit dance and that amounted to the judgment being irrevocable. This is because the ancestors, represented by the masked incarnate beings, are assumed to have given a nod to the verdict of the judges. This paper is aimed at eliciting how music is employed as instrument of punishment in an Igbo community in Nigeria with the aim of preserving the sanctity of one of their cherished traditional industry.

KEY WORDS: Music, Punishment, Iron smelting, Traditional economy, Lejja, Igbo, Nigeria.

Author(s): C. N. Ajaebili and C. M. Amaechi



There is no doubt that the issue of national integration has been on the front burner in Nigeria’s political discourse in the recent times. What gave vent to this situation are such notions being paraded by experts and dilettantes alike to the effect that Nigeria is an artificial creation of the British colonial government, and did not possess any underlying pre-colonial unity that could promote national unity and development. This is further buttressed by the fact that the country is an ethnic mosaic, that is, a conglomeration of peoples of diverse socio-economic, cultural and political backgrounds. But contrary to this climate of opinion, a variety of inter-ethnic mingling, beginning from the dim past and manifesting in a myriad of social, political, economic and cultural contacts, existed among the disparate moieties that make up modern Nigeria. It is evident that long before the birth of Nigeria, the indigenous peoples had interacted on a regular and continuing basis. Therefore, this paper argues that the multicultural nature of the Nigerian state is a blessing, and should be maximally exploited for purposes of national integration and the overall development of the country. 

Title of Article: Justice on Recess: Traders and Armed Robbers in Onitsha, South-Eastern Nigeria, 1979-2002
Author(s): Apex A. Apeh, Ph.D



At the onset of Nigeria’s Fourth Republic in 1999, the problem was how to consolidate the democratic dispensation so as not to give room again for military intervention. The security situation in the country was precarious at the time. The sixteen years of military rule after the Second Republic and the Third Republic diarchy perhaps have instilled lawlessness and all other forms of criminality in Nigerians. Thus, the greatest problem challenging the consolidation of democracy in the 4th Republic was insecurity. Perhaps, this convinced the Anambra State Government to adopt an unorthodox security outfit – Bakassi to take care of the security situation in the state against calls on the contrary by the Federal Government of Nigeria and Civil Rights groups. It was, however, not the first time unorthodox ways were sought to free the city of Onitsha from the grip of robbers. In the1970s, Onitsha, the commercial nerve centre of Southeastern Nigeria, was overrun by armed bandits that reigned in the city, attacking their victims with impunity. Then, Nigeria was recovering from a 30-month civil war, and the situation appeared to be part of the effects of the war. Even, the promulgation of the Armed Robbery and Firearms Decree of 1970 that stipulated death sentences by firing squad for armed robbers did not deter prospective robbers. By mid 1979, the security situation was so tense, especially in Onitsha, as armed robbers held the city at the juggler, and was only to be freed by a common resolve of the residents, mostly traders who took the laws into their own hands and descended on the robbers, lynching most of them and their accomplices. The people have lost the confidence in the police as they have been accused of aiding and abetting the robbers. The study will examine the situation in Onitsha between 1979 and 2002, while making a panoramic view of such incidences in Nigeria that had spurred the society to rise above the law to decide for themselves on matters of their security when it became obvious that the security agencies have failed in this regard. It contends that the clumsy nature of the Western judicial system and corruption in Nigeria has made criminals wriggle out of the grip of the law. The study posits that the society is not docile and from historical glimpses, did not fold its arms when their lives and property were in danger.

Key words: Lynching; Criminal; Arson; Violence; Punishment 

Author(s): Elochukwu A. Nwankwo and Matthias U. Agboeze



Heritage resources abound in the shores of Nigeria with enormous tourism potentials. These heritage resources do not only depict the cultural and historical transmutation of a people but also function in the image design and promotion of a locality. This reveals the unique role of heritage resources to structural development of an area. Heritage resources have of recent been a victim of degradation and social abuse arising from seasonal ignorance; hence minimizing its potentials to the socio-economic development of an area. Previous studies have worked on sustaining and preserving heritage resources both for posterity, culture and identity promotion, and tourism through various means including legislations, policies, architectural design, etc. This paper is emphasizing on the adoption of community development approaches in the preservation of heritage resources in Igbo area of Nigeria. Its modalities, applications, challenges and prospect were discussed with emphasis on selected communities from the South-East Nigeria. Ethnography was the major research approach adopted for the study. Such understanding will serve as a catalyst in aiding general restoration and preservation of heritage sites in Nigeria and other African states.

Keywords: Heritage Resources, Community development, Community development Approaches, Preservation, Sustainable development. 


Author(s): Elochukwu A. Nwankwo and Edwin E. Okafor



Diversification in economic base has dominated the economic policy of many nations recently. Tourism as one of the world’s largest industries has aided many nations in Africa, especially nations from the eastern part of Africa, in competing favourably amongst some other nations in the global market. Much has not been done in exploring tourism potentialities in economic empowerment of Nigeria. This is owing to the dearth of information and holistic ignorance of Nigerian leaders on the viabilities of tourism to national development. The sustenance and productivity of a nation depends more on the efficiency of leaders and leadership values. These two variables work in harmony for the progress of a nation. However, this paper reveals the implication of tourism negligence on the national economy. It further delineates ways of synthesizing tourism and leadership values through educational curriculum, the media, tourism clubs, the principle of public and private tourism, symposia, etc. It also unveiled the possible results from the synthesis as national consciousness, infrastructural and superstructural development, rehabilitation and development of tourist destinations and national economic development. The resultant effect is expected to be the exploring of more undeveloped tourist destinations, rehabilitating of the existing destinations and result-oriented tourism planning in Nigeria.

Keywords: Tourism, Leadership, Leadership Values, Sustainable Tourism Development.

Title of Article: Revisiting Weltliteraturideen: Faustdichtung als Beispiel fur die Unsterblichkeit der Literaturwissenschaft als universitarer Forschungsbereich
Author(s): F.N. Ibemesi



Die vorliegende Diskussion ist aus der gleichgültigen Einstellung unserer heutigen Fachstudierenden gegenüber der Literaturwissenschaft als Forschungsschwerpunkt hervorgegangen. Es geht hier nicht um eine empirische Forschung im Sinne von einer naturwissenschaftlicher Untersuchung und ihrem Befund. Es geht auch nicht um ein Plädoyer für das literarische Studium, denn das braucht kein Plädieren. Die Arbeit soll viel mehr als einen Diskurs über Literatur als Thema verstanden werden. Einige Punkte werden berücksichtigt, wobei die Fauststoffgeschichte als Haupteil des Diskurses behandelt wird. Der Schluss unterstützt die These, dass Literaturwissenschaft als Forschungsschwerpunkt unsterblich bleiben wird. 

Title of Article: The Phenomenon of Exile as a Mutant Strain in Nigerian Narratives
Author(s): Ignatius Chukwumah, Ph.D



Nigerian narratives are usually given socio-historical readings. This means that critics ground them to their seeming inalienable social and historical contexts from where they are said to be derived. In the operation of historical contextual grounding, scant regard oftentimes is given to the image of exile. This article, therefore, takes up for a close reading, the exilic figure in Nigerian narratives. It notes, through analysis, that this figure is hugely mutative as it emerges from Nigerian mythic narratives; realistic works, with Soyinka’s The Interpreters as a prime example; and quasi-realistic texts, such as Okri’s The Famished Road and others. With the exilic image straddling Nigerian narratives thus, this piece concludes that this image warrants serious critical attention in this present time.

Keywords: Mutant strain, Nigerian narratives; The Famished Road; The Interpreters; the phenomenon of exile 

Title of Article: Concord and Selectional Restriction Rules: A Study of the English Verb System among Senior Secondary III Students in Nsukka Education Zone
Author(s): Laz Chindu Ogenyi, Ph. D & Isaiah I. Agbo, M. A. (ESL)



The fact that the English verbs have semantic features that project meanings which determine the company that words keep in sentences is without doubt. The basic objective of this study is to examine the violation of the principles guiding the co-occurrence of the English verbs and other grammatical elements in sentence among senior secondary school students. The effects of the violation on language communication were also investigated. The investigation is based on errors and deviant patterns of the English verbs in sentences resulting in the violation of the rules of selectional restrictions. The problem which this study investigated is therefore the violation of selection restriction rules which results in anomalous sentences in written expressions of senior secondary school students. Senior Secondary School students III in Nsukka education zone are thus used for the study. The population lacks competence in the concord and selectional restrictions imposed by the English verbs to their arguments. The study also indicates that there is a hierarchy of difficulty encountered by the population in the division of the verbs studied. Though the population showed competence in some areas, the overall analysis shows the population to be incompetent. 


Title of Article: Symbolic structuration in Ben O ris Starbook
Author(s): Dr Chibuzo Onunkwo and Chinwe Obiesie




Ben Okri is one of the outstanding writers in contemporary African Literature. His writings have continued to engage literary critics in fervent intellectual debates and critical studies. This study critically discusses the various aspects of symbolic structuration in Ben Okri’s Starbook. Previous studies on this work have concentrated on the elements of magical realism, thematic structures of meaning and the narrative strategy. This study therefore, is aimed at drawing critical attention on the symbolic structuration as a vital force in text proliferation and interweaves of structural pattern. In absence of this symbolic structuration, the entire argument of Ben Okri’s Star Book collapses. This study will examine the various aspects of symbolic structuration from archetypal perspective.





The study was conducted to investigate the role of entrepreneurial education for youth empowerment and sustainable development in Nigeria higher education: counseling implication. The design of the study was descriptive survey design. The population comprises 282, made up of 243 s/cs and 39 professional counsellors drawn through simple random sampling. The instrument for data collection was structured questionnaire, developed by the researcher using strongly agreed, agreed, disagreed and strongly disagreed weighting (4,3,2,1). The data collected were analyzed using mean and standard deviation. A mean of 2.5 and above was accepted while any mean below 2.5 was rejected. The study revealed among other things that education, workshop, transformative paradigm, expert teachers/gadgets, learning to know/learning to do, and decision making, are entrepreneurship education tools for youth empowerment for sustainable development in Nigeria tertiary institution. It is therefore recommended, that government at all levels in collaboration with the various universities should encourage youth to engage in vocational training through workshop, symposium, conferences conducted by expert teachers/professional counsellors at least once in a year; so that they will be self-reliance in the society.

Keywords: Education, Special Education, youth empowerment, sustainable development, entrepreneurship education, higher education in Nigeria, counseling implication.

Title of Article: Reflection on the Wood Sculpture Tradition of the Nsukka Art Department



As an expressive creative medium, wood has been exploited by various art cultures. The sculpture tradition of the Nsukka Art Department, has engaged this creative resource in diverse ways, to make profound artistic statements. This essay reflects on the wood sculpture tradition of the Nsukka Art Department. It discusses the history and creative philosophy of the Nsukka Art Department. In addition to showing how this philosophy and other factors have impacted on the art department’s sculpture tradition, it specifically examines the various ways in which wood has been appropriated in sculptural processes. Visual and textual materials were relied on and these, were analyzed, using historical and stylistic approaches. Results show that the creative philosophy of the Nsukka Art Department, which emphasizes exploration, experimentation and intellectualization, as important components of the creative process, has engendered a unique and radical approach to the use of wood in art creation. The immense creative possibilities that wood offers, account for its resilience in art creation.

Title of Article: Functions of Cloth in Traditional Nigerian Societies
Author(s): Godson. O. Diogu



Ethnic textiles flourished in Nigeria before the colonial period. Textile materials were used by the people in various ways, especially in social, religious, economic and secular contexts. It was woven into the threads of life of the people who used them. Extant literatures on the evolution, development and uses of textiles in Nigeria focused more on the traditional techniques of production and their secular functions with little attention on its symbolic association. This paper examines textiles as instruments for social, religious and economic stability, as well as tools for communicating traditional norms and values. It examines various cultural norms associated with textiles and discusses functions of textiles as agents of social control, justice, security, authority and spiritual regeneration, among others. It shares an interpretative view of Nigerian textiles to provide a better understanding of the purposes for their creation and relevance. It concludes that the history of textiles in Nigeria needs to be in-dept and holistic. 

Author(s): G. O. Diogu, Chukwuemeka Nwigwe, and Anne, N. Diogu



Many factors have been documented in the literatures to be responsible for inhibiting the growth of textile industry in Nigeria, even with the presence of local raw materials, large consuming population, stable market and human resources. These problems, which pose serious threat to the growth and stability of Nigerian textile industry include insufficient raw materials, smuggling of foreign textiles, and shortage of electric power and spare parts for industrial machines. The paper examines the problems and prospects of the Nigerian textile industry. It argues that Nigeria has great potentials in textile manufacture based on her large consuming population and labour force. It identifies allied textile industry as new areas of investment that would reward local investors. 


Title of Article: Echoes of Trauma: Foregrounding of Violence in Ezenwa Ohaetos The Voice of the Night Masquerade and Fidelis O oros When the Bleeding Heart Breaks
Author(s): F.O. Orabueze. PhD; Ifeyinwa Ogbazi. PhD & P.A. Ezema. PhD



The poets, like other creative artists, have striven to depict both the ineffable and traumatic experiences in human history. Since the Second World War, particularly, man has subjected other human beings to untold hardship and violence through criminal activities that have the catastrophic dimensions of natural disasters like earthquake, landslide and tsunami. However, the poets have not shied away from their onerous responsibility as the voice that must alert the human race to the immanent retaliatory violence or bloody revolutions, which the victims of unmitigated violence can unleash on the whole society. The poets are able to send their messages to their readers through the use of literary language. This research, therefore, uses some selected poems from Ezenwa-Ohaeto’s The Voice of the Night Masquerade and Fidelis Okoro’s When the Bleeding Heart Breaks to examine the cause-and-effect sequence of violence that exists in both private and public spheres in the two literary texts. It particularly deals with the language use of the duo – the linguistic foregrounding and the foregrounding of imagery of violence – as they engage in a fierce battle with words and meanings to compellingly draw the attention of the reader to the criminality of a world that pushes the weak to rebellion. In order to achieve this goal, other forms of language in literature, like figures of speech and deviant structures in the two texts, must be appropriated as the poets struggle with elusive and unstable language to pin-point and concretize the social reality of a violent world inhabited by fragmented people.


Author(s): Norbert Oyibo Eze


Title of Article: The Law of the Jungle and the Nigeria Police Force: Extra Judicial Killing in Chimamanda Ngozi Adichies Cell One in The Thing Around Your Neck
Author(s): F.O.Orabueze; Justina Okoye & Ngozi Ezenwa Ohaeto



The constitution is purportedly the highest and the supreme law in Nigeria from which other laws derive their validity. It establishes the three arms of government – executive, legislative and judicial – and their organs and agencies and vests them with their powers and limitations. Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 1999, like other constitutions before it, establishes the Nigeria Police Force and provides its constitutional duties for the maintenance and security of public safety and public order. It further guarantees the fundamental rights and freedoms of the citizens, and establishes the superior courts of record and vests them with judicial powers. It further sets up within itself the procedure for the arrest, detention and prosecution of any person suspected to have committed or about to commit an offence. It is, therefore, within the legal framework of this grund norm and other statutes that this critical discourse examines Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie’s “Cell One” in The Thing Around Your Neck to unmask a police force in the world of the short fiction that carries out extra-judicial killings and other forms of jungle justice, despite the constitutionally guaranteed rights. In this short story, Adichie portrays Nigeria as a country that is a metaphor for murder of all sorts, a country where powers of organs of government are exercised unchecked, a country where human lives counts for nothing. Moreover, the reader discovers that Adichie exposes the reality of extra-judicial killing by Nigeria Police Force, a situation which has drawn the criticisms of legal jurists. She presents not only a corruption-ridden, disorderly and inept killer-squad of unabashed police force, but also indicts the silences and complicity of the citizenry in accommodating such horror.


Author(s): Agbonome, P.C. and Osefoh, F.C.


Architecture is as ancient as the desire of humanity to be comfortable, safe and cultured. The meaning of architecture has continued to be on the arena of debate because of the variables that impact on it, and because architecture encompasses and accommodates every human endeavor, its definition is mostly and often influenced by these human realities. There is no architecture without a context. This work aims at reawakening the discussion on the meaning and definition of architecture in an attempt at objectivity. Using the comparative narrative method, some opinions and submissions regarding both meaning and definition are reviewed and highlighted in an effort to determine their

objective content in the whole debate. It is observed that style was mostly employed in the classification of architecture and that style itself is influenced by a number of factors. Hence some of the factors include materials of construction, techniques and climate. Also at the heart of this classification is aesthetics which is also culture and time bound. Though it is argued that even in its uniformity that distinctiveness is a quality of architecture, there is evidence that following the scientific approach and with more research, especially in the area of valuemetrics as espoused in the Hartman’s theory in the science of ethics, objectivity in the definition and meaning of architecture can be attained.


Author(s): Eva Obodo, Ph.D.



Since after the Nigerian independence in 1960, the country has had a fairly long winding military dictatorial rule punctuated with intermittent democratic experiences. Kuti Usman, a Nigerian artist, created visual metaphors that mirror the political scene in Nigeria. Whirlwinds of Nigeria particularly, a body of work he produced during his MFA programme, essays in five pulsating levels, different stages of societal mutations, from troubled city to a land of hope. This paper attempts to analyse the work using technical approach in examining the artist’s painting method. It also adopted formal and conceptual approaches in analyzing the formal qualities of the work, as well as the ideas

the artist expressed. It was, however, observed that Whirlwinds of Nigeria is a critical visual statement spawned from exhaustive studio inquiry.



Author(s): Dr. P.A. Ezema


The introductory part of the article dwells on what language is all about and its benefits to mankind. Multilingualism is also introduced as one of the current areas in linguistic research. The paper’s literature review focuses on issues related to multilingualism. Multilingualism and Nigeria’s national policy on education form the article’s theoretical framework. The policy in relation to the language resources of the country is examined and evaluated. In conclusion, it is pointed out that the multilingual lingual nature of Nigeria is not adequately addressed in the policy. Three suggestions are made as a way of remedying this deficiency.


Author(s): Osefoh, F.C. & Agbonome, P.C.



Reviews on the state of tourism globally, and in Nigeria revealed the existence of large socio- economic gap between some countries of the world and Nigeria in terms of dearth of tourism development. In view of the fact that Nigeria is blessed with abundant tourism, natural reserves and sites; Nigeria is not ranked among the list of top tourism destinations worldwide. Data base on Nigerian‘s yearly domestic and international tourism is not readily available or in existence. Tourist sites in Nigeria are poorly maintained and those maintained and equipped are bereft of patronage as regards visits. In this regard, the dwindling nature of this sector called for concern with a view to ameliorating the situation through research findings. A period of five years of research was conducted by the authors using experimental method in form of pedagogical approaches on post graduate students offering the course: Tourism and the Built Environment in the Department of Architecture, University of Nigeria, Enugu Campus. Other methods of public awareness and education were applied in form of group packaged tours to different tourism destinations in the country over the research duration. The findings portrayed dearth of tourism culture or habit, insensitivity to conservation and preservation of historic and cultural heritage, and physical development of some sites at variance with ambient physical environment. The findings recommend the pursuance with vigor revitalization of tourism industry through public awareness, education and participation of the populace to boost domestic tourism and attract international tourism through public and private empowerment, learning and practical involvement in packaged tours. The result showed burning zeal for participation by students and the university community in subsequent tours. The feat however achieved a measure of long lasting result in inculcating tourism culture and habit through ‘generational culture transfer’ as inherent in Europe, America, Australia, Asia and other continents of the world.

Key words: Revitalization, Sustainable, Ecotourism, Conservation, Education and



Nsukka Journal of the Humanities Vol. 28(2) 2020, pp. 1-11


Nsukka Journal of the Humanities Vol. 28(2) 2020, pp. 1-11